Proper and regular nutrition of the expectant mother during pregnancy is very important both for her own health and for the healthy development of the baby. The gestation period is considered to be 40 weeks. During 40 weeks, the expectant mother gains approximately 8-20 kilograms. These numbers are considered normal weight gain. However, if the weight gain exceeds this amount, it can be thought that the mother moves away from a healthy diet. In this case, we can say that they take high-calorie foods and eat foods with low nutritional value. Until the 12th week of the pregnancy period, the mother's discomfort may increase as many hormonal changes are experienced physically in the mother. The most obvious of these are vomiting, nausea, sensitivity to smells, digestive system problems. Therefore, it is necessary to create living conditions in which the mother can be comfortable during this period.
If the pregnancy is a planned pregnancy, it is considered important for a healthy pregnancy for the expectant mother to take folic acid supplementation before becoming pregnant by many specialists. You can talk about this issue with your doctor and proceed with his recommendations.
In addition, since expectant mothers are likely to experience nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to smell during pregnancy; He may need to choose the foods that he will consume in a way that is not spicy and has less odor, however his instant taste requires.
In the first months of pregnancy, meals containing healthy fats (olive oil, butter, plain oil, coconut oil) must be included in the diet.
You should choose additive-free snacks with high nutritional value from the foods you will take as snacks during the day. Chef Anne Biscuits and snacks, fresh seasonal fruits (without exaggerating the amount, after all, they contain fructose), raw nuts, seasonal salad with olive oil soaked in well-washed vinegar water, yoghurt and cereal meals will be good examples of snacks.
The most important nutrients that the expectant mother should consume during pregnancy are; fresh vegetables, fish, red meat, milk, eggs, cheese, yoghurt, kefir. If there is a sensitivity to these foods, they can consume their equivalents without difficulty. Baking, steaming and classic pot cooking should be preferred instead of frying and barbecue. Care should be taken to ensure that the foods that the expectant mother will consume are as additive-free as possible and have a shorter shelf life.
There is no need for extra calorie intake for the first 3 months.
Since the physical and hormonal changes in the mother will be regulated from the 3rd month, the expectant mother should prepare and follow a nutrition program with the doctor's recommendation from this month. It is important for a healthy pregnancy to eat 6 meals a day instead of 3 meals a day, and to eat frequently and less. Expectant mothers should be fed an average of 2000-2400 calories per day. In this process, especially red meat, fish and vegetables should be fed and snacks should be consumed as snacks with low calories but high nutritional value. When he adds milk and yogurt to his daily meals, he keeps the sugar level in balance.
Milk derivatives must be added to the nutrition program during pregnancy . According to current articles and current scientific research, consuming fermented versions of milk is healthier than drinking milk directly. One of the yogurt, ayran or kefir can be included in a meal.
Red meat during pregnancy is very important for the baby to get protein. The development of the baby's muscle structure depends on getting enough protein. Protein is a great source of enzymes and hormones in the baby. Therefore, red meat is a very important source of protein during pregnancy. Red meat should be consumed two days a week. While red meat is a great source of protein, it is also very rich in B group vitamins and minerals. In red meat consumption, fully cooked meat should be preferred instead of undercooked meat during pregnancy. Overcooked and burnt meat should never be consumed for full cooking. Undercooked meat creates a bacterial vulnerability, and overcooked meat can cause free radical accumulation in our body and damage the body in the long run.
Vegetable consumption is always important for human health. Vegetables, with their fiber, feed the bacteria that we call probiotics, which feed the beneficial bacteria in our intestines. So vegetables are prebiotics. Therefore, a vegetable-based diet during pregnancy is very important both for the health of the mother and for the birth of a healthy baby.
Since fish is a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids and protein, fish should be consumed during pregnancy as it will positively affect the development of the baby's eye development and brain structure. Consumption of fish once or twice a week would be an ideal frequency.
Our expectant mothers, who are afraid to eat fish in areas where there is a risk of mucilage in the seas recently, may prefer freshwater fish or imported fish such as Norwegian salmon. Again, we should pay attention to the issue of cooking. We should prefer oven instead of barbecue and frying. We should be careful that it is not undercooked, not overcooked, but FULLY cooked.
Eggs are known as superfoods. It is a very high quality protein source. If the expectant mother does not have allergies, she should consume at least 1 egg per day. Eggs should be boiled until bruised and the protein structure should not be damaged. Undercooked soft-boiled eggs are not recommended for pregnant women as it will cause bacterial weakness. Eggs consumed by the expectant mother must be fully cooked.
Just as the daily calorie requirement increases during pregnancy, the need for water consumption also increases. If a normal person needs 2-2.5 liters of water per day on average, pregnant women should increase it up to 3-3.5 liters. Because “baby growth” is added to the physiological state and metabolic reactions of the expectant mother. You can think of drinking water as internal cleansing in our body. Let's not forget to drink plenty of water for a more waste-free and clean body.
Smoking and alcohol consumption should be strictly avoided during pregnancy. Since carbon monoxide from cigarettes interferes with the binding of oxygen in the blood of both the mother and the fetus, it has a serious adverse effect on pregnancy. Premature birth, which we call miscarriage, pregnancy poisoning, which we call preeclampsia, cause developmental delay in the baby and countless ailments that we cannot count. Moreover, it has a negative effect on postpartum milk production in terms of both quantity and quality.
The liver of the baby in the womb does not have the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and therefore cannot break down alcohol. Alcohol has a direct toxic effect on the baby's body and can cause very serious developmental problems.
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